java, programming, Uncategorized

Exception Antipatterns

Java has pretty good exception handling, but it’s something that a surprising number of programmers get wrong.
The point of an exception is to provide detailed information to software maintainers about the reason for a program’s failure.
The three key points here are:

  • You should only throw an exception in cases where the program fails. If you’re frequently seeing the same exception in the same place – you should question whether your program should be allowed to fail under those conditions
  • Exceptions are for software maintainers only. The exception should be logged at the the appropriate point in the code, and a friendlier message should be displayed to the user
  • Detailed information should be provided (within the limits of data security, of course). The minimum should be a stack trace locating the exact point where things went wrong, ideally also with an informative message.

Its worthwhile spending a little time when you code to produce useful exceptions, it saves time when something goes wrong with your code in production because the source of the problem can easily be found and traced.

Bearing that in mind, here’s some anti-patterns I’ve recently seen around exceptions. Lets look at why they’re bad practice:

 stuff that contacts an external system;
 catch(APIException e){
 throw new BusinessException("Failure in external system");

The good stuff here is that the developer is catching only the appropriate exception, he’s describing what’s wrong in his new exception, and that he’s allowing the program to fail.
The problem is that, in the process he’s just destroyed the whole stack trace that would inform us where the external system failed during the reply. Without a debugger or a detailed functional knowledge of how the external system works, there’s nothing more you can do with this exception.
Some better solutions here would be (in order of my preference):

  • Don’t catch and rethrow – maybe it’s fine to just let the APIException continue up the stack
  • Aggregate the APIException to the BusinessException… and make sure to log the whole trace when you catch the business exception
  • Log the result of the APIException now before rethrowing

Here’s another one

 BusinessResponse processAPIResponse() throws TimeoutException, ConcurrentModificationException, TechnicalException, FunctionalException{
 Response r = result of call to external system;
 int code = r.getErrorCode();
 if(code == 1234){
 throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
 if(code >= 8000 && code < 9000){
 throw new TechnicalException();
 if(code > 0 && code < 8000){
 throw new FunctionalException();

Here, the problem is that we’re throwing a bunch of checked exceptions, based on the API response, that the client may not be able to handle.
A good rule of thumb for exception handling (and it’s open to debate), as mentioned by O’Reilly
is that, Unless there’s something the client code can do to recover from this failure, it’s better to throw a runtime exception.

Finally, when’s an exception not an exception?

There’s two common approaches to avoiding throwing exceptions when you should have thrown one… and they are:

  •  if without else — Of course you code if statements all the time. But do you know what should happen when your if statement is not true?  Should the default behaviour really be nothing? (Hint: The default behavior is frequently not nothing!)

Like, for example, a UI event handler… if you just coded


then without the condition, you risk the possibility that UI may just stay in the same place, un-updated forever.

  • Returning null — This can basically be a null pointer exception that hasn’t happened yet, in someone else’s code.

Two great ways to avoid this problem are:

  • If you’re returning null, ask does null have a meaning here (like getFirstSomething() can return null if the list of something has 0 elements), or am I just returning null because I don’t know what to do otherwise?
  • Put a javadoc return tag on every method that returns an object. Document under what conditions this method can return null.

Putting this stuff in when you code can sometimes feel like a hassle – it’s code not targeted at solving the issue you’re coding to solve… but it can pay great dividends later when your code, or some system it’s connected to, starts behaving unexpectedly!


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